Bismillah is the beginning of all that is good

Volume Two of the Risale-i Nur Collection




Bediuzzaman Said Nursi

        Letters 1928-1932



[New edition 2008]






THE FIRST LETTER: The answers to four questions:


The First answers a question about Khidr’s life, and in connection with it explains the five levels of life.       19


The Second explains how, in accordance with Qur’anic verses, death is created and a bounty, like life.        21


The Third describes  where  Hell is situated,  and the Greater  and Lesser Hells. It explains in reasoned manner the wisdom in the creation of the Greater Hell, and how in majestic fashion, manifesting divine favour and wrath, Heaven and Hell are the two fruits of the tree of the universe and will be filled with the produce of this world.     23


The   Fourth   shows   that   like   passing   love   for   individuals   may  be transformed into true love, so through belief in God, passing love for this world may be transformed into true love, which is acceptable       25


THE SECOND  LETTER:  Six reasons  why,  in accordance  with  Qur’anic verses, those working for the cause of religion should practice self- sufficiency,  and if there is no compelling reason to do so, not accept alms and gifts.      28


THE THIRD LETTER: A description of two verses which in miraculous fashion  allude  to  the  face  of  the  heavens  and  orderly  motion  of  the heavenly  bodies.  It includes  two points,  the  first  explaining  how  the wicked will travel to Hell, the second showing the infinite ease in unit y and infinite difficulty in multiplicity.    31


THE FOURTH LETTER makes two points about the Risale-i Nur and its way: firstly, that it manifests the meaning of the verse, “He who has been given wisdom...,” and secondly, about the way of impotence. Finally is a piece “resembling poetry” on the Utterance of the Stars.          35


THE FIFTH LETTER: In the face of the tendency to attach too much importance to Sufism at the expense of spreading the truths of belief, this letter describes the three sorts of sainthood. It states that the unfolding of the truths of belief is the chief aim of the Sufi ways, and that this is also possible through the Risale-i Nur, but in a shorter time.           38


THE  SIXTH  LETTER:  This  explains  the  meaning  of  two  verses  about reliance on God, and describes a light and consolation proceeding from them and from belief that dispelled the darkness of five grievous degrees of exile.    40


THE  SEVENTH  LETTER:  A  decisive  answer  to  atheists  who  seek  to criticize the Prophet Muhammad’s (UWBP) number of wives and his marriage with Zaynab in particular, which elucidates some important instances of wisdom in his marriages.        43


THE EIGHTH LETTER: In explanation of the verse, “God is the Best of Protectors and He is the Most Merciful of the Merciful,” this shows that what the Prophet Jacob (UWP) felt for Joseph (UWP), was not love of a passionate kind, but compassion —compassion being more elevated and pure, and the means of attaining to the divine names of Merciful and Compassionate.       46


THE  NINTH  LETTER:  A  discussion  about  wonder-working  (kerâmet), divine bestowal, and divine favour which points out that although it is harmful  to  display  wonder-working,  it  is  a  form  of  thanks  to  make known divine bestowal, since it is a bounty. Secondly is an explanation of how intense emotions such as curiosity, love, greed, ambition, and stubbornness are of two sorts, worldly and real, the purpose of the latter being to gain the hereafter. The former sort are the source of bad morals, but the latter are beneficial and the source of good morals. Thirdly is a discussion  about  the  differences  between  Islam  and  belief  or  faith (iman).   48


THE TENTH LETTER: This consists of the answers to two questions. The first explains the realities of the Clear Book and the Clear Record, mentioned  in  several  places  in  the  Qur’an.  While  the  second  is  a convincing  explanation  of where the Great  Gathering  and Last Judgement will take place.        52


THE ELEVENTH  LETTER:  Four Topics. Expounding  the verse, “Indeed the wiles of Satan are weak,” the first is a cure for those who suffer from scruples.  The  second  is  included  in  the  Seventeenth  Word  and  not repeated here. The third and fourth are two examples demonstrating the impotence of modern civilization before the Qur’an. The examples show how the Qur’anic decrees on women’s inheritance are both pure justice and pure compassion.    55


THE TWELFTH  LETTER:  The brief replies  to  three questions  disputed over by some people with a modern educational background.


The First explains why Adam was expelled from Paradise and why some of his descendants are sent to Hell.    58


The Second explains why the creation of evil is not evil, and why divine mercy permits it.           59


The Third explains why calamities and tribulations being inflicted on even the innocent and animals is not tyrannical or contrary to justice.         61


THE THIRTEENTH  LETTER: The reply to frequent questions as to how Bediuzzaman endured the oppression inflicted on him by the politicians and ‘the worldly.’ It shows how the varieties of ill-treatment were transformed into various sorts of mercy. It also gives the reasons Bediuzzaman did not apply for his release papers, and in addition, for his total indifference towards politics.        63


THE FOURTEENTH LETTER was not written.


THE FIFTEENTH LETTER: Six important answers to six important questions:


The   First:   The   answer   in  two   stations   to   the   questions   why   the Companions of the Prophet (UWBP) did not perceive the troublemakers with the eye of sainthood, so that it resulted in three of the four Rightly- Guided Caliphs being martyred.           68


The Second: What was the true nature of the wars that started in ‘Ali’s time? How should those who took part in them be looked upon?        70


The  Third:  An  important  answer  explaining  the  wisdom  in  the  cruel treatment received by members of the Prophet’s Family.        73


The Fourth: Narrations state that when Jesus (UWP) kills the Dajjal at the end of time, most people will enter the true religion, while others say that no one will remain who says, “Allah! Allah!” A convincing answer to this.        74


The Fifth: An explanation of the question: Will the immortal spirits be grieved by the events of the Last Day?    77


The   Sixth:   A   satisfying   answer   to   the   question,   Does   the   verse, “Everything will perish save His countenance” include the hereafter and Paradise and Hell?        77


THE SIXTEENTH LETTER consists of five points:


First Point explains that service of the Qur’an precluded Bediuzzaman’s involvement in politics.    80


Second  Point:  Service  of  the  Qur’an  and  working  seriously  for  the hereafter necessitated his aloofness from politics.        81


Third Point: Two stories illustrating why Bediuzzaman endured the severe oppression he was subject to.      83

 Fourth Point: The answer to a number of suspicious questions put to him by  ‘the  worldly.’  It  describes  some  undeniable  instances  of  divine favours connected with his service of the Qur’an.        85


Fifth Point: The replies concerning five further matters.    89


ADDENDUM TO THE SIXTEENTH LETTER: Written to dispel the groundless fears of the authorities and atheists concerning Bediuzzaman, despite his having completely withdrawn  from the world and politics; also written to preserve the dignity of learning.            92


THE SEVENTEENTH  LETTER: A letter of condolence on the death of a child.   Although   it   is  short   and   addressed   to  a  close   student   of Bediuzzaman,  it is of considerable  interest.  It establishes  that, as the Qur’an teaches, children who die before the age of puberty remain as children in the Everlasting  Realm, and are returned to the embrace of their parents.      97


THE EIGHTEENTH LETTER consists of three important matters.


The  First   explains   and   illustrates   by  means   of  a  comparison   how sometimes  the  things  the  saints  witness  and  have  unfolded  to  them through  illumination  in  other  worlds  and  levels  of  existence  appear contrary to reality in this Manifest World.        101


The Second:  A clear explanation of the way of the Unity of Existence, which has been the cause of confusion and controversy. It proves that the way of the Companions of the Prophet (UWBP) and the veracious, the people of sobriety, is sounder and more elevated and acceptable.       103


An Addendum to the Second Matter            106


The Third: A brief indication solving one of the three main riddles of creation. These have been solved completely in the Twenty-Ninth and Thirtieth Words, and this third one, in the Twent y-Fourth Letter.       110


THE  NINETEENTH  LETTER,  The  Miracles  of  Muhammad  (UWBP): Itself a marvel in several respects, this Letter describes more than three hundred miracles of Muhammad  (UWBP). It consists of nineteen signs.      112


The First Sign establishes that the Master and Owner of the Universe will speak with man, and foremost the most perfect of mankind, with Muhammad  (UWBP), and make him the guide to the rest of humanity.      114


Second Sign: On the prophethood of Muhammad (UWBP)          115


Third Sign: The evidences for Muhammad’s (UWBP) messengership     116


Fourth  Sign:  Six  principles  ensuring  a  complete  understanding  of  the Noble Prophet’s predictions about his Companions, his family, and his community.         118


Fifth   Sign:   Examples   of   Hadiths   concerning   the   Prophet’s   (UWBP) predictions relating to the Unseen. It includes important answers to the questions  of  why  ‘Ali  did  not  precede  the  others  in  holding  the Caliphate,   and   why  Islam   experienced   such   disorders   during   his Caliphate;  why  the  Caliphate  did  not  remain  in  his  family;  and  the reasons for the dissensions at that time.            125


Sixth Sign: Further predictions of future events, and includes the answer to a question about the Shi‘a’s love for ‘Ali.        132


Seventh Sign: Sixteen examples relating to the Prophet’s (UWBP) effecting increase in food.      140


Eighth Sign: Relates miracles which were manifested in connection with water.      149


Ninth Sign: Examples of miracles related to trees. Like human beings, trees obeyed his orders, and moving from their places, came to him.           155


Tenth Sign: The miracle of the Moaning of the Pole.        159


Eleventh Sign: Shows how rocks and mountains from among lifeless creatures demonstrated prophetic miracles.       162


Twelfth Sign: Consists of three examples related to the Eleventh Sign, but which are of great importance.       166


Thirteenth Sign: Examples of the Prophet’s (UWBP) healing the sick and the wounded.     169


Fourteenth Sign describes wonders manifested as a result of his prayers.   175


Fifteenth Sign: Consists of three branches:


The First shows how the animal kingdom recognized the Prophet (UWBP) and displayed his miracles.      185


The  Second   concerns  corpses,  jinns,  and  angels  recognizing  God’s Messenger (UWBP).      189


The Third is the protection and preservation of the Noble Prophet (UWBP), of which there were many instances, and which were clear miracles.     193


Sixteenth Sign: Describes the wonders that took place before his prophetic mission, but which were related to it, called irhasat. They were of three kinds:


The First Kind: The tidings of Muhammad’s Prophethood  given by the Torah, the Bible, the Psalms of David, and other scriptures.       197


The  Second  Kind:  Tidings  of  his  coming  given  by  soothsayers,  and people known as saints and gnostics.                        209


The Third Kind: The wondrous events that occurred at the time of, and in conjunction with, the birth of God’s Noble Messenger (UWBP).         214


Seventeenth Sign: The Messenger’s (UWBP) own self      217


Eighteenth Sign: The greatest miracle of the Messenger (UWBP), the All- Wise  Qur’an.  It  consists  of  three  points  describing  aspects  of  the Qur’an’s miraculousness           219


Nineteenth Sign: Fifteen Principles indicating the integrity, and veracity of the  Prophet  (UWBP),  the  most  conclusive  proof  of  divine  unity  and eternal happiness.          228


FIRST ADDENDUM  TO THE  MIRACLES  OF MUHAMMAD (UWBP): The Nineteenth Word, it proves decisively and explains the Messengership of Muhammad (UWBP).            236


SECOND ADDENDUM: About the Miracle of the Splitting of the Moon. Refuting objections made to the miracle in the name of science, it demonstrates that there was nothing to prevent its occurrence, and proves clearly that it happened.      245


THIRD ADDENDUM: About the Messengership of Mu-hammad (UWBP), this is a concise answer to the question in the Treatise on the Ascension: “Why was this mighty Ascension particular to Muhammad the Arabian (UWBP)?”           250


FOURTH ADDENDUM: The Sixteenth Degree, on the Messengership of Muhammad, from The Supreme Sign.        254


THE TWENTIETH LETTER contains two stations and an introduction, and expounds the verse, “So know there is no god but God,” and the eleven phrases of the Hadith: “There is no god but God, He is One, He has no partner etc.” The first station points out the good news contained in each phrase, and the second demonstrates with powerful proofs the degrees of the true affirmation of divine unity.         261


ADDENDUM TO THE TENTH PHRASE OF THE TWENTIETH LETTER: That is: “And He is Powerful over all things.” It points out through three comparisons that when all things are attributed to divine power, they become as simple as one thing, and if they are not and are ascribed to things other than Him, each thing becomes as difficult as all things.             298


THE TWENTY-FIRST LETTER: A short but important letter showing how on five levels the verse, “Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life...” summons children to be kindly to their parents.     303


THE  TWENTY-SECOND   LETTER:  In  accordance  with  a  number  of Qur’anic verses, the First Topic summons believers to love and brotherhood. It points out effective ways of preventing discord, rancour, and enmity, and proves that they are extremely damaging both from the point of view of truth, wisdom, humanity, and Islam, and for personal, social, and spiritual life, and are to be rejected.            306


The Second Topic points out effective ways of avoiding greed, another awesome  disease,  as  harmful  for  the  life of Islam  as enmit y.  It  also explains the importance of zakat and the wisdom in this pillar of Islam..      316


Conclusion showing how the Qur’an reproaches the backbiter on six levels with the verse, “Would any among you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?”           321


THE TWENTY-THIRD LETTER: The answers to seven questions:             323


The First: What is the best way believers can pray for one another?    324


The Second: May the phrase “May God be pleased with him” be used for anyone other than the Companions?     325


The Third: Which were superior, the great interpreters of the Holy Law, or the ‘shahs’ of the true Sufi paths?         325


The Fourth: What is the meaning of the verse, “God is with those who patiently persevere?”    326


The Fifth: How did the Prophet (UWBP) worship before his prophetic mission? 327


The Sixth: What was the wisdom in his prophethood commencing when he was forty years of age?       327


The Seventh: Is the following a Hadith: “The best of your youths are those who resemble men of mature age.”?     328


The letter concludes with a subtle point about Joseph’s (UWP) elevated veracity, inspired by the verse, “Take my soul at death as one submitting to Your will.”      329


THE TWENTY-FOURTH  LETTER  consists  of two stations which solve one of the obscure riddles of the universe, and form an answer  to  the  question:  How  can  the  divine  names  of  All- Compassionate, Wise, and Loving be reconciled with death, separation, calamity, and   suffering? The first station consists of five signs which show  the  necessitating   cause  and  reason,  the  second  station,   five indications, which point out the aims and benefits.      330


FIRST ADDENDUM TO THE TWENTY-FOURTH  LETTER: In five points, this expounds significant aspects of the verse, “No importance would your Sustainer attach to you, were it not for your supplication”      347


SECOND ADDENDUM:  A convincing, reasoned answer, in five points, to three important questions about the Ascension of the Prophet Muhammad (UWBP) and the Mevlid. The conclusion shows God’s Messenger (UWBP) to be the most perfect person in the cosmos and its universal master.           352


THE TWENTY-FIFTH LETTER was to consist of twenty-five points about Sura Ya. Sin., but was not realized.


THE TWENTY-SIXTH LETTER: Consists of four topics.


First Topic: ‘A Proof of the Qur’an Against Satan and His Party.’ This defeats in argument the Devil and his followers by refuting clearly one of their cunning stratagems, which is to be ‘unbiased;’ that is, their deceiving people into considering the Qur’an and matters of religion impartially..       359


Second Topic explains how a person may have numerous personalities in respect   of   his   different   duties,   and   describes   the   author’s   three personalities.     370


Third Topic: In seven matters, this expounds the verse, “We... made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other,” pointing out significant truths about social relations and mankind being created as different peoples and groups. A beneficial remedy for nationalism, an awesome disease of the times, and also exposes the pseudo-patriots and their fraudulent attitudes.       372


Fourth Topic: Consists of ten unrelated matters, which form the answers to six questions.


First Matter explains several points inspired by the Qur’an related to “the worlds” in the phrase “Sustainer of All the Worlds,” and their numbering eighteen thousand.          379


Second Matter explains what Muhyi’l-Din al-‘Arabi meant by saying to Fakhr al-Din Razi: “To know God is different to knowing He exists.”      381

Third Matter:  How the verse, “We have honoured the sons of Adam,” is conformable with the verse, “He was indeed unjust and foolish?”      382


Fourth Matter: A brilliant reply to a question about the wisdom contained in the  Hadith: “Renew your belief by means of ‘There is no  god but God.’”      383


Fifth Matter: Are both parts of the confession of faith necessary?       386


Sixth Matter: With a comparison, this drives Satan and his party into a corner and takes possession of the field in the name of the Qur’an, thus showing all the Prophet’s (UWBP) qualities and conduct to be miraculous and proving his prophethood.   387


Seventh Matter: Seven brief examples of people who for various reasons ceased their service to the Qur’an and received blows contrary to their intentions, written to strengthen their morale and dispel their groundless fears.       389


Eighth Matter: A lucid explanation of why the Qur’an and glorifications of the Prophet (UWBP) cannot be translated       391


Ninth Matter:   A reply to the question, “Can there be saints outside the Sunnis, since they are the people of truth?”            394


Tenth  Matter:  Principles  for  Bediuzzaman’s  visitors,  who  are of three sorts, and their connection with his three personalities.            394


THE TWENTY-SEVENTH  LETTER has been published separately under the titles of Barla Lahikası, Kastamonu Lahikası, and Emirdağ Lahikası.


THE TWENTY-EIGHTH LETTER consists of eight matters.


First  Matter:  Seven  points  explaining  the  reality  and  benefits  of  true dreams.        399


Second Matter: A reply intending to solve an argument about the Hadith which describes how Moses (UWP) struck Azra’il (UWP) in the eye, and is a satisfying answer to objections of this sort levelled at Hadiths..       404


Third Matter: Five points explaining that those who visit Bediuzzaman should do so only in respect of his being herald of the Qur’an, not with any other intention. It mentions too some examples of the divine favours associated with service of the Qur’an that Bediuzzaman and his students had received.     408


Fourth Matter: Four points written in the tongue of the Old Said, in reply to questions about the small mosque he used being unlawfully  raided  on a number  of occasions,  and  subsequently closed                      415


Fifth Matter: On Thanks; this expounds most convincingly the many Qur’anic commands to offer thanks. It demonstrates that the universe is a treasury with thanks being the key; and that sustenance is its result and prompts thanks.    419


Sixth  Matter:  This  was  not  included  here  as  it  was  to  be  included  in another collection.


Seventh  Matter  consists  of  seven  signs  describing  seven  instances  of divine favour connected  with the Risale-i Nur and those who serve it. These  are  preceded  by  seven  reasons  for  making  known  the  above favours.       424


Answer to a Confidential Question explains the power and effectiveness of the Risale-i Nur.                                434


Conclusion to the Seventh Matter describes a further divine favour in the form of the coincidences (tevâfukat)                          436


Eighth Matter consists of eight points, which form the answers to six questions:


First Point concerns  ‘coincidences’  being  found in all the parts of the Risale-i Nur.       439


Second and Third Points were not included.


Fourth   Point  consists   of  answers  to  six  questions  about  the  Last Judgement and Great Gathering    441


Fifth Point: In the period between prophets, did the Messenger’s (UWBP) forefathers belong to a religion and were they religious?       443


Sixth  Point:  Were  there any prophets  among  the  Messenger’s  (UWBP) forefathers?     444


Seventh   Point:   Which   of   the   narrations   about   the   belief   of   the Messenger’s (UWBP) parents and his grandfather are the most authentic?       444


Eighth Point: Which is the authentic narration concerning his uncle, Abu Talib?          445


THE TWENTY-NINTH  LETTER  consists  of nine sections,  and contains twenty-nine important points.


First Section is nine points.


First Point: An answer to those who say, “The Qur’an’s mysteries are not known; the commentators have not understood its realities.”  447


Second Point: Explains the wisdom in such Qur’anic oaths as, “By the sun and its glorious splendour.”      448


Third  Point  is about  the Disjointed  Letters,  found  at the  beginning  of some Suras.       449


Fourth Point points out a flash of the Qur’an’s miraculousness in its style, showing that its true translation is not possible.           449


Fifth Point demonstrates that it is impossible to translate the phrase, “All praise be to God,” since  its meaning can be expressed  only in a few lines.      451


Sixth Point: An illuminating  explanation  of the use of the first person plural in “You  alone do we  worship  and from You alone do we seek help.”     452


Seventh Point: Expounding “Guide us to the Straight Path,” it points out the harm caused by innovations.           455


Eighth  Point explains  a point about the marks  of Islam  being  general rights.    455


Ninth Point explains the reason matters of the Shari‘a related to worship are of two kinds 456


Second Section: On the Month of Ramadan. Nine points explaining nine instances of wisdom in the fast of Ramadan, expounding the verse, “It was the month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was revealed”          457


Third Section concerns the writing of a Qur’an showing the ‘coinciding’ of the word Allah. Consists of nine matters, only the first was included here      465


Fourth Section is also about ‘coincidences,’ it consists of three points, the four points of the third being included here      466


Fifth Section: One beautiful light of the many mysteries of the verse, “God is  the  Light  of  the  heavens  and  earth.”  This  treatise  is  short,  yet important.          470


Sixth Section: Written to warn students and servants of the Qur’an against being deceived by six of the stratagems of satanic individuals and dissemblers.


First Stratagem exposes their attempts to attract people through desire for rank and position.          474


Second Stratagem points out how they take advantage of the vein of fear.      477


Third Stratagem: They hunt many people through greed and ambition, in order to make them give up service to the Qur’an.       480


Fourth Stratagem: They excite nationalist feelings in or-der to create discord and make Bediuzzaman’s students lose their love of him.      482

Fifth Stratagem: They encourage egotism    488


Sixth Stratagem: They take advantage of the human characteristics of laziness, the desire for physical comfort, and attachment to other duties.      490


A Sacred Date: The date a Qur’anic mystery became clear        911


Addendum to the Sixth Section: Sixth Questions exposing the arbitrary, unjust treatment Bediuzzaman received                              492


Seventh  Section:  Seven  signs  consisting  of  seven  powerful  answers  to seven questions.


First Sign: A firm answer to those people of innovation who claim that it is permissible to translate the call to prayer into other languages because certain people who have embraced Islam do so in Europe.      496


Second Sign: Decisive answers to false comparisons between Christianit y and Islam           498


Third Sign: An illuminating answer to misplaced accusations of bigotry and its results.    501


Fourth Sign: An answer revealing the false claims of nationalists.       502


Fifth Sign: A powerful answer explaining the reality of the Mahdi.      503


Sixth  Sign:  A brief answer  mentioning  the Mahdi’s  community  and  a Christian community routing the secret society of the Dajjal  505


Seventh  Sign:  An explanation  of why as the  New  Said,  Bediuzzaman gave up the scholarly method of the Old Said  505


Eighth  Section:  The  Eight  Symbols.  These  eight  short  treatises  on ‘coincidences’ (tevâfukat) are not included here.


Ninth Section: The Nine Allusions, which elucidate the ways of sainthood and Sufism:


First Allusion: A definition of the Sufi path, and explanation of the truth underlying  the terms Sufism,  path, sainthood,  and spiritual journeying      507


Second  Allusion  explains  how  the  heart  is  worked  through  reflective thought and remembrance of God, and how this is a means to happiness.      508


Third Allusion explains how sainthood is a proof of prophethood, and the Sufi way, a proof of the Shari‘a.      508


Fourth Allusion: This explains the two ways on the Sufi path, of inner journeying and outer journeying.          510

Fifth Allusion explains the reality of the Unity of Existence and the Unit y of Witnessing,  and  establishes  the superiority of the  followers  of the legacy of prophethood.        513


Sixth  Allusion:  Three  points  showing  that  the  best  of  the  ways  of sainthood is following the practices of the Prophet (UWBP), and its most important  foundation,  sincerity;  and  that  this  world  is  the  realm  of wisdom and service, not reward.           515


Seventh Allusion: Four points explaining that the Sufi way should serve the Shari‘a; that its highest degrees are matters  of the Shari‘a; that it should always remain as a means and follow the Shari‘a; and whether or not those outside the bounds of the Sunna and Shari‘a are acceptable         516


Eighth Allusion describes eight abysses on the Sufi way         520


Ninth Allusion: Nine of the sweet fruits of the Sufi way         527


ADDENDUM:  A short,  safe,  and direct  way leading  to  Almight y God, taken from the Qur’an         524


THE THIRTIETH LETTER: The Arabic Qur’anic commentary, Signs of Miraculousness: The Inimitability of the Qur’an’s Conciseness (Isharat al-I‘jaz fi Mazann al-Ijaz).


THE THIRTY-FIRST LETTER: The thirty-one Flashes.


THE THIRTY-SECOND LETTER: The treatise in free verse called Lemeât. It is also the Thirty-Second  Flash and has been included at the end of Sözler.


THE THIRTY-THIRD  LETTER: Thirty-Three Windows making known the Creator. It is in one respect the Thirty-Third Word and has therefore been included in The Words (Sözler).


SEEDS OF REALITY: Aphorisms compiled from some of Bediuzzaman’s early works and first published in 1920.           528


Double click for meaning of the world.
Pharmaceutical Track & Trace System İlaç Takip Sistemi